The Double-Edged Sword: How Technological Innovation Affects Income Inequality

The moderating effect of economic growth. Source: Xiao et al., (2024); Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 11(1), 1-18.
The moderating effect of economic growth. Source: Xiao et al., (2024); Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 11(1), 1-18.

Technology is a constant force for change that promises to connect us, streamline processes, and drive economic growth. But a recent study published in the scientific journal Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, conducted by prominent researchers, delves into and explores the intricate relationship between technological innovation and income inequality (the gap between rich and poor).

Income inequality (the gap between rich and poor) is a major concern, and new research sheds light on how it interacts with technological innovation. The research developed by researchers from Sichuan University (China) and Juraj Dobrila University of Pula (Croatia), with global implications, sheds light on how technological advances can widen the economic gap, particularly in developed nations.

The Problem of Inequality

The data paints a grim picture: the top 10% globally control more than half of all income, while the bottom 50% struggle with a meager share. These economic hardships fuel social unrest and hinder development. The COVID-19 pandemic further exposed these vulnerabilities and highlighted the need to address persistent inequality.

Technological Innovation: A Double-Edged Sword

Technological advances drive economic growth, but their impact on inequality is a double-edged sword. While innovation creates new opportunities, it can also widen the income gap. This happens in the following ways:

  1. Displacement of Low-Skilled Workers: Automation replaces some jobs, leaving low-skilled workers vulnerable to unemployment or lower-paying positions.
  2. Skill Bias: New technologies often demand higher skills, making it difficult for low-skilled workers to compete. This can lead to unemployment or lower-paying jobs.
  3. Information Asymmetry: Limited access to digital technologies creates a “digital divide,” leaving some behind in the knowledge economy.
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Narrowing or Widening the Gap?

The study goes beyond direct effects. It explores possible feedback loops, where inequality can influence technological innovation’s pace and direction. Additionally, the research investigates how economic factors such as growth, globalization, and trade interact with innovation to affect inequality.

Researchers examined data from 59 countries over 25 years (1995-2020), covering both developed and developing nations. They employed sophisticated statistical methods to analyze the interaction between innovation, income disparity, and other economic factors.

Their findings challenge a simple narrative. While innovation has the potential to close operational and communication gaps, the study suggests it can also unintentionally exacerbate income inequality. This effect is particularly pronounced in developed economies, highlighting a crucial concern for policymakers.

A Web of Complexity

The story doesn’t end there. The research reveals that factors such as economic growth, globalization, and export trade interact with technological innovation, creating a web of complexities. These interactions can either cushion or accelerate the primary relationship between innovation and income inequality.

Unintended Consequences and Policy Implications

These findings highlight the double-edged nature of technological advances. While innovation offers undeniable benefits, it is essential to recognize and address its potential downsides. The study underscores the need for informed policymaking that harnesses the power of innovation while mitigating its unwanted socioeconomic consequences.

A Springboard for Further Exploration

This research paves the way for deeper explorations within specific domains such as education, public health, and business. It also invites a broader conversation across disciplines, encouraging us to consider the ethical and behavioral dimensions of technology adoption. Understanding user experiences and social outcomes will be vital in navigating the complexities of technological change.


Technological innovation remains a powerful driver of economic growth. However, its impact on income inequality requires careful consideration. By acknowledging the complexities and applying targeted policies, we can harness innovation for a more inclusive and equitable future.

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Key Takeaways:

  1. Innovation and Inequality: Technological advances widen the income gap in both developed and developing countries. This happens because new technologies often favor highly skilled workers, leaving behind those with less education.
  2. Developed vs. Developing Countries: Developed nations appear more susceptible to this innovation-induced inequality trap.
  3. Moderating Effects: The study also explored how other factors can influence the relationship between innovation and inequality.
  • Economic Growth: In developing countries, economic growth seems to reduce the negative impact of innovation on inequality.
  • Globalization and Export Trade: Interestingly, globalization and export trade appear to have a cushioning effect in developing countries, meaning they reduce inequality caused by innovation.

Based on these findings, the study proposes a multifaceted approach to achieving inclusive growth:

  1. Focus on Human Capital: Policies should prioritize vocational training and education to close the skills gap. This includes government funding for training programs and fostering labor mobility.
  2. Labor Protection: Strengthening labor laws and reforming employment services are crucial to ensure fair treatment for workers in an evolving labor market. Policies like collective bargaining and minimum wage regulations can help workers share the benefits of technological progress.
  3. Diversification of Innovation: Government policies can encourage a broader range of technological advancements by reducing barriers, investing in research and development, and supporting innovative startups. This can help reduce the bias toward high-skilled jobs often associated with new technologies.
  4. Inclusive Digitalization: Bridging the digital divide is essential. This involves creating accessible digital infrastructure, developing user-friendly technologies, and providing educational opportunities. Government support for infrastructure in underserved areas and investment in digital public services (healthcare, logistics, education) are key strategies.
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Overall, this research highlights the complex interaction between technological innovation and income inequality. By implementing targeted policies that address both human capital development and the potential downsides of innovation, we can work toward a future where everyone benefits from technological advancements.

The study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

Zeshui Xu
Business School, Sichuan University,
Chengdu, 610064, China

Marinko Skare
Juraj Dobrila Univ Pula, Fac Econ & Tourism Dr Mijo Mirkovic
Preradoviceva 1-1, Pula, 52100, Croatia

Reference (open access)
Xiao, A., Xu, Z., Skare, M., Qin, Y., & Wang, X. (2024). Bridging the digital divide: The impact of technological innovation on income inequality and human interactions. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 11(1), 1-18.